Most common note and rest values. In practice, please learn the American system. The others are "nice to know".

Note Sign
number equal to
1 semibreve
English American Italian French German
whole note
1 semibreve whole note semibreve semi-brčve
or
ronde
(meaning round)
ganze Takt(note)
half note
2 minim half note minima
or
bianca
blanche
(meaning white)
Halbe(note)
or
halbe Takt(note)
quarter note
4 crotchet quarter note semiminima
or
nera
noire
(meaning black)
Viertel(note)
eighth note
8 quaver eighth note croma croche
(meaning hook)
Achtel(note)
sixteenth note
16 semiquaver sixteenth note semicroma double croche
(meaning double hook)
Sechzehntel(note)
Rest
number equal to 1 semibreve
English American Italian French German
Whole rest
1 semibreve rest whole rest pausa di semibreve pause ganze Pause
half rest
2 minim rest half rest pausa di minima demi-pause halbe Pause
quarter rest
4 crotchet rest quarter rest pausa di semiminima soupir Viertelpause
eighth rest
8 quaver rest eighth rest pausa di croma demi-soupir Achtelpause
sixteenth rest
16 semiquaver rest sixteenth rest pausa di semicroma quart de soupir Sechzehntelpause